European leaders are reinstating coronavirus restrictions as the new Omicron variant continues to spread through the continent.
Germany and Portugal are among nations announcing post-Christmas curbs and greater social distancing measures.
Omicron is already the dominant strain in many European countries.
According to the World Health Organisation, the surge is expected to push health systems towards the brink of collapse.
Hans Kluge said “another storm” was coming and governments should brace for significant increases in cases.
Germany announced that from December 28 limits would return that restrict private gatherings to 10 people and nightclubs would close. Football matches from that date will also be played behind closed doors.
“Coronavirus doesn’t take a Christmas break,” Germany’s Chancellor Olaf Scholz said on Tuesday.
“We cannot – and must not – close our eyes to this next wave, which is beginning to loom over us,” he added.
Meanwhile Portugal ordered bars and nightclubs to shut from December 26, and made working from home obligatory from that date until January 9. The country has limited outdoor gatherings to 10 people.